Turkey officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti is a contiguous transcontinental parliamentary republic, with its smaller part in Southeastern Europe and its larger part in Western Asia (i.e. the Balkans and Anatolia, respectively). Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea is to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea to the north.


  • Full name: Republic of Turkey

  • Population: 76,667,864

  • Capital: Ankara

  • Largest city: Istanbul

  • Area: 783,562 km2 

Other Cities:

Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Bursa, Adana, Gaziantep, Konya, Antalya Kayseri, Mersin

Areas of Turkey bordering the Sea of Marmara (including Istanbul), which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate Oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. Snow does occur on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but it usually lies no more than a few days. Snow on the other hand is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.

Multiculturalism has echoed in a number of states where due to various ethnic or religious compounds of population the common co-existence resulted in clashes between cultures from time to time. As soon as they became more frequent and their consequences could not be ignored any more, they entered the political agenda of some prominent European Union leaders as well. The following article puts forward some historic background of this topic and focuses on multiculturalism in the Republic of Turkey with the purpose to elicit the country´s controversial position on its path to the European Union.




Turkey boasts many centuries of academic excellence. The scholars are not just qualified but they are also friendly and accessible. Most high schools and universities have advanced facilities. Regarding its content, the Turkish university system displays equilibrium between scientific disciplines included in the social sciences and humanities. Turkey has a unique strategic position at the crossroads of East and West which endows this country with nearly ten-thousand years of history. As part of Asia and part of Europe, Turkey has remarkably wide climatic and geographical variations. Due to its location, surrounded by seas on three sides, Turkey as always been the center of great trade, silk and spice routes. Today, even in the most inaccessible or isolated corners, one can easily feel and see the traces of different cultures

Education in Turkey is governed by a national system which was established in accordance with the Ataturk Reforms after the Turkish War of Independence. It is a state supervised system designed to produce a skillful professional class for the social and economic institutes of the nation
Compulsory education lasts 12 years. Primary and secondary education is financed by the state and free of charge in public schools, between the ages of 6 and 18, and by 2001 enrolment of children in this age range was nearly 100%. Secondary or high school education is mandatory, but required in order to then progress to universities. By 2011 there were 166 universities in Turkey. Except for the Open Education Faculty (Turkish: Açıköğretim Fakültesi) at Anatoly University, entrance is regulated by a national examination, ÖSYS, after which high school graduates are assigned to university according to their performance.
In 2002, the total expenditure on education in Turkey amounted to $13.4 billion, including the state budget allocated through the National Ministry of Education and private and international funds.
On November 22, 2010, government initiated the Faith which seeks to integrate state-of-the-art computer technology into Turkey's public education system
Primary Systems Primary school (Turkish: İlköğretim Okulu) lasts 8 years. Primary education covers the education and teaching directed to children between 6–14, is compulsory for all citizens, boys or girls, and is given free of charge in public schools. Primary education institutions are schools that provide eight years of uninterrupted education, at the end of which graduates receive a primary education diploma.[5] The first four years of the Primary School is sometimes referred to as "First School, 1. Level" (Turkish: İlkokul 1. Kademe) but both are correct.
Secdonry Education System Secondary education includes all of the general, vocational and technical education institutions that provide at least three years of education after primary school. The system for being accepted to a high school changes almost every year. Sometimes private schools have different exams, sometimes there are 3 exams for 3 years, sometimes there's only one exam but it is calculated differently, sometimes they only look at your school grades. Secondary education aims to give students a good level of common knowledge, and to prepare them for higher education, for a vocation, for life and for business in line with their interests, skills and abilities.
Vocational System Vocational and technical secondary education involves the institutions that both raise students as manpower in business and other professional areas, prepare them for higher education and meet the objectives of general secondary education Vocational and technical secondary education includes technical education schools for boys, technical education schools for girls, trade and tourism schools, religious education schools, multi-program high schools, special education schools, private education schools and health education schools. In the academic year 2001–2002, 821,900 students were being educated and 66,100 teachers were employed in 3,400 vocational and technical secondary education schools.
Turkish language–mathematics: international relations, law, education, psychology, economy, business management, and similar. Science: engineering, computer science, medicine, and other science-related professions. Social sciences: history, geography, and education. Foreign languages: language/linguistics and language teaching.


The economy of Turkey is defined as an emerging market economy by the IMF. Turkey is among the world's developed countries according to the CIA World Fact book Turkey is also defined by economists and political scientists as one of the world's newly industrialized countries. The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products; textiles; motor vehicles, ships and other transportation equipment; construction materials; consumer electronics and home appliances. In recent years, Turkey had a rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in industry, banking, transport, and communications.

Work rights during studies:

International students, unfortunately, have no legal right to work either in public or private offices. However, Turkish universities are relatively open to foreign researchers. Both public and private universities recruit non-Turkish staff. Among universities with a clear international profile are the universities of Bogazici (Istanbul) and the Middle East Technical University (Ankara), which are both public. Among private universities are those of Sabanci, Koc and Bilgi (all in Istanbul) and Bilkent (Ankara).Language is not only major obstacle to get a temporary job. There are universities and departments within universities whose language of instruction is English or where English is the most common language. Some private universities were established as English-speaking universities, and they are now trying to compete with public universities to attract top international academic staff and researchers.

Work rights for your spouse                
You can apply for a Turkish Worker visa if you’re a Turkish national and have legally worked in the UK for at least 1 year as:
The spouse of a British or settled person without any restrictions on working in the UK
A holder of a work permits allowing you to work in the UK
A student allowed working 20 hours a week during term time and full time during vacation periods